Racial Residential Segregation Measurement Project

U of M


Studies of Segregation in Specific Locations


Howard Lawrence Preston, 1979. Automobile Age Atlanta: The Making of a Southern Metropolis: 1900-1935. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press.

Ronald H. Bayor, 1996. Race and the Shaping of Twentieth Century Atlanta. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Elvin K. Wyly and Steven R. Holloway, 1999. "The New Color of Money: Neighborhood Lending Patterns in Atlanta Revisited." Housing Facts and Findings 1(2), (Summer): 1-11.

David L. Sjoquist (Editor), 2000. The Atlanta Paradox. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

This is the Atlanta volume in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality series.

Jefferey M. Timberlake, 2000. "Still Life in Black and White: Effects of Racial and Class Attitudes on Prospects for Residential Integration in Atlanta." Sociological Inquiry 70(4), (Fall): 420-445.


Jerry W. Fly and George R. Reinhard, 1980. "Racial Separation During the 1970s: The Case of Birmingham," Social Forces 58(4), (June): 1255-1262.


Robert Schafer, 1979. "Racial Discrimination in the Boston Housing Market." Journal of Urban Economics 6: 276-296.

Harriett Tee Taggart and Kevin W. Smith, 1979. "Redlining: An Assessment of the Evidence of Disinvestments in Metropolitan Boston," Urban Affairs Quarterly 17(1), (September): 91-107.

Judith D. Feins and Rachel G. Bratt, 1983. "Barred in Boston: Racial Discrimination in Housing." APA Journal 49(3): 344-355.

Barry Bluestone and Mary Huff Stevenson, 2000. The Boston Renaissance: Race, Space, and Economic Change in an American Metropolis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

This is the Boston volume in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality series.


William M. Rohe, 1995. "Assisting Residents of Public Housing Achieve Self-Sufficiency: An Evaluation of Charlotte's Gateway Families Program." Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 12(3), (Autumn): 259-277.


Chicago Commission on Race Relations, 1922. The Negro in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

This book reflects the thinking and work of Robert Park and Charles Johnson and provides the best description we have of the emergence of race relations and racial residential segregation in a large northern city at the time of World War I.

St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton, 1945. Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. New York: Harper & Row.

This is the classic study of a large and highly segregation Negro community during the Depression era.

Otis Dudley and Beverly Duncan, 1957. The Negro Population of Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

This is the classic study of the Negro population of a large northern city in the years after World War II but before the Civil Rights Revolution.

Alden Spear, 1967. Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto: 1890-1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

This is among the most competent and comprehensive urban histories centered on the early development of black neighborhoods in northern cities

Harvey Luskin Molotch,1972. Managed Integration: Dilemmas of Doing Good in the City. Berkeley: University of California Press.

This is an extremely important and well-document study of the well-intentioned but largely unsuccessful attempts to maintain stable interracial neighborhoods in the South Shore area along Chicago's southern lakefront.

Carol Goodwin, 1979. The Oak Park Strategy. Chicago: University of Chicago.

This is an excellent description of the largely successful effort made in Oak Park, Illinois -a suburb of Chicago - to maintain black-white residential integration.

W. Schwab and E. Marsh, 1979. "The Tipping Point Model: Prediction of Change in the Racial Composition of Cleveland, Ohio Neighborhoods: 1940-1970." Environment and Planning 12: 385-398.

Arnold R. Hirsch, 1983. Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago: 1940-1960. New York: Cambridge University Press.

This is an excellent investigation of the strategies used to maintain racial residential segregation in and around Chicago after World War II.

Anne B. Shlay, 1988. "Not in That Neighborhood: The Effects of Population and Housing on the Distribution of Mortgage Finance within the Chicago SMSA." Social Science Research 17: 137-163.

Joe T. Darden, 1987. "Socioeconomic Status and Racial Residential Segregation: Blacks and Hispanics in Chicago." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 281(2): 1-13.


Kenneth l. Kusmer, 1976. A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black Cleveland, 1870-1930. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

This is an excellent study of the development of black residential segregation in Cleveland with a focus upon development of segregation before and during the first world war.

George C. Galster, 1990. "White Flight from Racially Integrated Neighborhoods in the 1970s: the Cleveland Experience." Urban Studies 27(3): 385-399.


Albert Mayer, 1960. "Russell Woods: Change Without Conflict." In Nathan Glazer and David McEntire (editors), Studies in Housing and Minority Groups. Berkeley: University of California.

In many Detroit neighborhoods there was bitter conflict after World War II as whites sought to keep blacks out. In other neighborhoods, the shift in color composition occurred rapidly but without much conflict. This is the description of what happened in the Russell Woods neighborhood of Detroit.

Eleanor Wolf, 1969. "The Tipping Point in Racially Changing Neighborhoods." Journal of the American Institute of Planners 29: 217-222.

National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 1968. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, New York: New York Times.

This is also known as the Kerner Commission Report since President Johnson appointed Illinois Governor Kerner to head this commission that investigated the urban racial violence of the 1960s. While the Commission looked at trends across the nation, a great deal of attention was paid to racial polarization and segregation in metropolitan Detroit.

Reynolds Farley, 1975. "Population Trends and School Segregation in the Detroit Metropolitan Area." Wayne Law Review 21(3), (March): 869-902.

Charles T. Clotfelder, 1977. "The Detroit Decision and "White Flight." The Journal of Legal Studies: 99-112.

Reynolds Farley, Howard Schuman, Suzanne Bianchi, Diane Cola Santo and Shirley Hatchett, 1977. "Chocolate City, Vanilla Suburbs, Will the Trend Toward Racially Separate Communities Continue?" Social Science Research 7 (December): 319-344.

This is the original paper that demonstrates the both whites and blacks paid considerable attention to the racial composition of a neighborhood when making decisions about where to live.

Olivier Zunz, 1979. The Changing Face of Inequality: Urbanization, Industrial Development, and Immigrants in Detroit: 1880-1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Joe T. Darden, Richard Child Hill, June Thomas and Richard Thomas, 1987. Detroit: Race and Uneven Development. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Teresa Blossom, David Everett and John Gallagher, 1988. "The Race for Money," The Detroit Free Press. August 4-12.

This is an excellent study carried out by newspaper journalist that examined then newly released Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data. Their findings strongly suggested that federally chartered lenders in metropolitan Detroit were influenced by the race of applicants and the race of the occupants of neighborhoods.

David L. Good, 1988. Orvie: The Dictator of Dearborn, The Rise and Reign of Orville L. Hubbard. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

This is an excellent and thorough study of how Mayor Hubbard kept Dearborn white from the 1940s into the 1970s despite the fact that tens of thousands of African American worked in its Ford plants and that federal courts and a Civil Rights Revolution called for equal racial opportunities in the housing market.

Reynolds Farley, Charlotte Steeh, Tara Jackson, Maria Krysan and Keith Reeves, 1993. "Continuing Racial Residential Segregation in Detroit: 'Chocolate City, Vanilla Suburbs' Revisited." Journal of Housing Research 4(1): 1-21.

This paper reports findings from a 1992 replication of the 1976 study that led to the Chocolate City, Vanilla Suburbs paper showing that both blacks and whites paid considerable attention to the racial composition of neighborhoods when they made their housing decisions.

Thomas J. Sugrue, 1993. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press.

This is a now classic urban history focused upon the development and consequences of racial residential segregation in metropolitan Detroit. It might be read in conjunction with the Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders.

Reynolds Farley, Charlotte Steeh, Maria Krysan, Tara Jackson and Keith Reeves, 1993. "Stereotypes and Segregation: Neighborhoods in the Detroit Area." American Journal of Sociology 100(3), (November): 750-780.

Joe T. Darden and Sameh M. Kamel, 2000. "Black Residential Segregation in the City and Suburbs of Detroit: Does Socioeconomic Status Matter?" Journal of Urban Affairs 22(1): 1-13.

Reynolds Farley, Sheldon Danziger and Harry J. Holzer, 2000. Detroit Divided. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

This is the Detroit volume in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality series.

Florida Cities

Morton D. Winsberg, 1983. "Changing Distribution of the Black Population: Florida Cities, 1970-1980." Urban Affairs Quarterly 18(3) (March): 361-370.


Beth Anne Shelton, Nestor P. Rodriquez, Joe R. Faegin, Robert D. Bullard and Robert D. Thomas, 1988. Houston: Growth and Decline in a Sunbelt Boomtown. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Los Angeles

Lawrence Bobo and Camille L. Zubrinsky, 1996. "Attitudes Toward Residential Integration: Perceived Status Differences, Mere In-Group Preference, or Racial Prejudice?" Social Forces 74(3): 883-909.

Camille Zubrinsky and Lawrence Bobo, 1996. "Prismatic Metropolis: Race and Residential Segregation in the City of Angels." Social Science Research 25: 335-374.

Lawrence D. Bobo, Melvin L. Oliver, James H. Johnson, Jr. and Abel Valenzuela, Jr., 2000. Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

This is the Los Angeles book in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality series.

Camille Zubrinsky Charles, 2000. "Neighborhood Racial-Composition Preferences: Evidence from a Multiethnic Metropolis." Social Problems 47(3): 379-407.


Joe William Trotter, 1983. Black Milwaukee: The Making of an Industrial Proletariat: 1915-45. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

George Galster, Fred Freiberg and Diane L. Houk, 1987. "Racial Differentials in Real Estate Advertising Practices: An Exploratory Case Study." Journal of Urban Affairs 9(3): 199-215.

New York

Gilbert Osofsky, 1963. Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto Negro New York: 1890-1930. New York: Harper & Row.

Seth M. Scheiner, 1965. Negro Mecca: A History of the Negro in New York City: 1865-1920. New York: New York University Press.

Nathan Kantrowitz, 1973. Ethnic and Racial Segregation in the New York Metropolis. New York: Praeger.

George Galster and Heather Keeney, 1993. "Subsidized Housing and Racial Change in Yonkers, New York." Journal of the American Planning Association 59(2), (Spring): 172-181.


Earl Lewis, 1988. In Their Own Interests: Race, Class and Power in Twentieth Century Norfolk, Virginia. Berkeley: University of California Press.


W. E. Burghardt DuBois, 1899. The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Series in Political Economy and the Law, No. 14.

Carolyn dams, David Bartelt, David Elesh, Ira Goldstein, Nancy Kleniewski and William Yancey, 1988. Philadelphia: Neighborhoods, Division, and Conflict in a Postindustrial City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.


1972. Afro-Americans in Pittsburgh; The Residential Segregation of a People. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath

St. Louis

Lee Rainwater,1970. Behind Ghetto Walls: Black Family Life in a Federal Slum. Chicago: Aldine Publishing.

This frequently cited book described the processes that concentrated poor black mothers and their children into the massive public housing projects constructed by the federal government in many cities after World War II. The consequences of such segregation were also explored by this eminent sociologist.

John E. Farley, 1983. "Metropolitan Housing Segregation in 1980: The St. Louis Case." Urban Affairs Quarterly 18: 347-359.

John E. Farley, 1991. "Black-White Housing Segregation in the City of St., Louis: A 1988 Update." Urban Affairs Quarterly 26(3), (March): 442-450.

San Francisco

Albert S. Broussard, 1988. Black San Francisco: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West: 1900-1954. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.

Douglas S. Massey and Eric Fong, 1990. "Segregation and Neighborhood Quality: Blacks, Hispanics and Asians in the San Francisco Metropolitan Area." Social Forces 69(1): 15-32.

Southern Cities

Wade Clark Roof, Thomas L. van Valey and Daphne Spain, 1976. "Residential Segregation in Southern Cities: 1970." Social Forces 55: 59-71.


James Borchert, 1980. Alley Life in Washington: Family, Community, Religion, and Folklife in the City: 1850-1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.