Studies of Segregation in Specific Locations
Howard Lawrence Preston, 1979. Automobile Age Atlanta: The Making of a Southern
Metropolis: 1900-1935. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press.
Ronald H. Bayor, 1996. Race and the Shaping of Twentieth Century Atlanta.
Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Elvin K. Wyly and Steven R. Holloway, 1999. "The New Color of Money: Neighborhood
Lending Patterns in Atlanta Revisited." Housing Facts and Findings
1(2), (Summer): 1-11.
David L. Sjoquist (Editor), 2000. The Atlanta Paradox. New York: Russell
This is the Atlanta volume in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality
Jefferey M. Timberlake, 2000. "Still Life in Black and White: Effects
of Racial and Class Attitudes on Prospects for Residential Integration in Atlanta."
Sociological Inquiry 70(4), (Fall): 420-445.
Jerry W. Fly and George R. Reinhard, 1980. "Racial Separation During the
1970s: The Case of Birmingham," Social Forces 58(4), (June): 1255-1262.
Robert Schafer, 1979. "Racial Discrimination in the Boston Housing Market."
Journal of Urban Economics 6: 276-296.
Harriett Tee Taggart and Kevin W. Smith, 1979. "Redlining: An Assessment
of the Evidence of Disinvestments in Metropolitan Boston," Urban Affairs
Quarterly 17(1), (September): 91-107.
Judith D. Feins and Rachel G. Bratt, 1983. "Barred in Boston: Racial Discrimination
in Housing." APA Journal 49(3): 344-355.
Barry Bluestone and Mary Huff Stevenson, 2000. The Boston Renaissance: Race,
Space, and Economic Change in an American Metropolis. New York: Russell
This is the Boston volume in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality
William M. Rohe, 1995. "Assisting Residents of Public Housing Achieve
Self-Sufficiency: An Evaluation of Charlotte's Gateway Families Program."
Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 12(3), (Autumn): 259-277.
Chicago Commission on Race Relations, 1922. The Negro in Chicago. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
This book reflects the thinking and work of Robert Park and Charles
Johnson and provides the best description we have of the emergence of race
relations and racial residential segregation in a large northern city at
the time of World War I.
St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton, 1945. Black Metropolis: A Study of
Negro Life in a Northern City. New York: Harper & Row.
This is the classic study of a large and highly segregation Negro community
during the Depression era.
Otis Dudley and Beverly Duncan, 1957. The Negro Population of Chicago.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
This is the classic study of the Negro population of a large northern
city in the years after World War II but before the Civil Rights Revolution.
Alden Spear, 1967. Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto: 1890-1920.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
This is among the most competent and comprehensive urban histories
centered on the early development of black neighborhoods in northern cities
Harvey Luskin Molotch,1972. Managed Integration: Dilemmas of Doing Good
in the City. Berkeley: University of California Press.
This is an extremely important and well-document study of the well-intentioned
but largely unsuccessful attempts to maintain stable interracial neighborhoods
in the South Shore area along Chicago's southern lakefront.
Carol Goodwin, 1979. The Oak Park Strategy. Chicago: University of Chicago.
This is an excellent description of the largely successful effort made
in Oak Park, Illinois -a suburb of Chicago - to maintain black-white residential
W. Schwab and E. Marsh, 1979. "The Tipping Point Model: Prediction of
Change in the Racial Composition of Cleveland, Ohio Neighborhoods: 1940-1970."
Environment and Planning 12: 385-398.
Arnold R. Hirsch, 1983. Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago:
1940-1960. New York: Cambridge University Press.
This is an excellent investigation of the strategies used to maintain
racial residential segregation in and around Chicago after World War II.
Anne B. Shlay, 1988. "Not in That Neighborhood: The Effects of Population
and Housing on the Distribution of Mortgage Finance within the Chicago SMSA."
Social Science Research 17: 137-163.
Joe T. Darden, 1987. "Socioeconomic Status and Racial Residential Segregation:
Blacks and Hispanics in Chicago." International Journal of Comparative
Sociology 281(2): 1-13.
Kenneth l. Kusmer, 1976. A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black Cleveland, 1870-1930.
Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
This is an excellent study of the development of black residential
segregation in Cleveland with a focus upon development of segregation before
and during the first world war.
George C. Galster, 1990. "White Flight from Racially Integrated Neighborhoods
in the 1970s: the Cleveland Experience." Urban Studies 27(3): 385-399.
Albert Mayer, 1960. "Russell Woods: Change Without Conflict." In
Nathan Glazer and David McEntire (editors), Studies in Housing and Minority
Groups. Berkeley: University of California.
In many Detroit neighborhoods there was bitter conflict after World
War II as whites sought to keep blacks out. In other neighborhoods, the shift
in color composition occurred rapidly but without much conflict. This is the
description of what happened in the Russell Woods neighborhood of Detroit.
Eleanor Wolf, 1969. "The Tipping Point in Racially Changing Neighborhoods."
Journal of the American Institute of Planners 29: 217-222.
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 1968. Report of the National
Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, New York: New York Times.
This is also known as the Kerner Commission Report since President
Johnson appointed Illinois Governor Kerner to head this commission that investigated
the urban racial violence of the 1960s. While the Commission looked at trends
across the nation, a great deal of attention was paid to racial polarization
and segregation in metropolitan Detroit.
Reynolds Farley, 1975. "Population Trends and School Segregation in the
Detroit Metropolitan Area." Wayne Law Review 21(3), (March): 869-902.
Charles T. Clotfelder, 1977. "The Detroit Decision and "White Flight."
The Journal of Legal Studies: 99-112.
Reynolds Farley, Howard Schuman, Suzanne Bianchi, Diane Cola Santo and Shirley
Hatchett, 1977. "Chocolate City, Vanilla Suburbs, Will the Trend Toward
Racially Separate Communities Continue?" Social Science Research 7
This is the original paper that demonstrates the both whites and blacks
paid considerable attention to the racial composition of a neighborhood when
making decisions about where to live.
Olivier Zunz, 1979. The Changing Face of Inequality: Urbanization, Industrial
Development, and Immigrants in Detroit: 1880-1920. Chicago: University of
Joe T. Darden, Richard Child Hill, June Thomas and Richard Thomas, 1987. Detroit:
Race and Uneven Development. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Teresa Blossom, David Everett and John Gallagher, 1988. "The Race for
Money," The Detroit Free Press. August 4-12.
This is an excellent study carried out by newspaper journalist that
examined then newly released Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data. Their findings
strongly suggested that federally chartered lenders in metropolitan Detroit
were influenced by the race of applicants and the race of the occupants of
David L. Good, 1988. Orvie: The Dictator of Dearborn, The Rise and Reign
of Orville L. Hubbard. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
This is an excellent and thorough study of how Mayor Hubbard kept Dearborn
white from the 1940s into the 1970s despite the fact that tens of thousands
of African American worked in its Ford plants and that federal courts and
a Civil Rights Revolution called for equal racial opportunities in the housing
Reynolds Farley, Charlotte Steeh, Tara Jackson, Maria Krysan and Keith Reeves,
1993. "Continuing Racial Residential Segregation in Detroit: 'Chocolate
City, Vanilla Suburbs' Revisited." Journal of Housing Research 4(1):
This paper reports findings from a 1992 replication of the 1976 study
that led to the Chocolate City, Vanilla Suburbs paper showing that both blacks
and whites paid considerable attention to the racial composition of neighborhoods
when they made their housing decisions.
Thomas J. Sugrue, 1993. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality
in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press.
This is a now classic urban history focused upon the development and
consequences of racial residential segregation in metropolitan Detroit. It
might be read in conjunction with the Report of the National Advisory Commission
on Civil Disorders.
Reynolds Farley, Charlotte Steeh, Maria Krysan, Tara Jackson and Keith Reeves,
1993. "Stereotypes and Segregation: Neighborhoods in the Detroit Area."
American Journal of Sociology 100(3), (November): 750-780.
Joe T. Darden and Sameh M. Kamel, 2000. "Black Residential Segregation
in the City and Suburbs of Detroit: Does Socioeconomic Status Matter?"
Journal of Urban Affairs 22(1): 1-13.
Reynolds Farley, Sheldon Danziger and Harry J. Holzer, 2000. Detroit Divided.
New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
This is the Detroit volume in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality
Morton D. Winsberg, 1983. "Changing Distribution of the Black Population:
Florida Cities, 1970-1980." Urban Affairs Quarterly 18(3) (March):
Beth Anne Shelton, Nestor P. Rodriquez, Joe R. Faegin, Robert D. Bullard and
Robert D. Thomas, 1988. Houston: Growth and Decline in a Sunbelt Boomtown.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Lawrence Bobo and Camille L. Zubrinsky, 1996. "Attitudes Toward Residential
Integration: Perceived Status Differences, Mere In-Group Preference, or Racial
Prejudice?" Social Forces 74(3): 883-909.
Camille Zubrinsky and Lawrence Bobo, 1996. "Prismatic Metropolis: Race
and Residential Segregation in the City of Angels." Social Science Research
Lawrence D. Bobo, Melvin L. Oliver, James H. Johnson, Jr. and Abel Valenzuela,
Jr., 2000. Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation.
This is the Los Angeles book in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality
Camille Zubrinsky Charles, 2000. "Neighborhood Racial-Composition Preferences:
Evidence from a Multiethnic Metropolis." Social Problems 47(3):
Joe William Trotter, 1983. Black Milwaukee: The Making of an Industrial
Proletariat: 1915-45. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
George Galster, Fred Freiberg and Diane L. Houk, 1987. "Racial Differentials
in Real Estate Advertising Practices: An Exploratory Case Study." Journal
of Urban Affairs 9(3): 199-215.
Gilbert Osofsky, 1963. Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto Negro New York: 1890-1930.
New York: Harper & Row.
Seth M. Scheiner, 1965. Negro Mecca: A History of the Negro in New York
City: 1865-1920. New York: New York University Press.
Nathan Kantrowitz, 1973. Ethnic and Racial Segregation in the New York Metropolis.
New York: Praeger.
George Galster and Heather Keeney, 1993. "Subsidized Housing and Racial
Change in Yonkers, New York." Journal of the American Planning Association
59(2), (Spring): 172-181.
Earl Lewis, 1988. In Their Own Interests: Race, Class and Power in Twentieth
Century Norfolk, Virginia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
W. E. Burghardt DuBois, 1899. The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study. Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania. Series in Political Economy and the Law, No.
Carolyn dams, David Bartelt, David Elesh, Ira Goldstein, Nancy Kleniewski and
William Yancey, 1988. Philadelphia: Neighborhoods, Division, and Conflict
in a Postindustrial City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
1972. Afro-Americans in Pittsburgh; The Residential Segregation of a People.
Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath
Lee Rainwater,1970. Behind Ghetto Walls: Black Family Life in a Federal
Slum. Chicago: Aldine Publishing.
This frequently cited book described the processes that concentrated
poor black mothers and their children into the massive public housing projects
constructed by the federal government in many cities after World War II. The
consequences of such segregation were also explored by this eminent sociologist.
John E. Farley, 1983. "Metropolitan Housing Segregation in 1980: The St.
Louis Case." Urban Affairs Quarterly 18: 347-359.
John E. Farley, 1991. "Black-White Housing Segregation in the City of
St., Louis: A 1988 Update." Urban Affairs Quarterly 26(3), (March):
Albert S. Broussard, 1988. Black San Francisco: The Struggle for Racial
Equality in the West: 1900-1954. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.
Douglas S. Massey and Eric Fong, 1990. "Segregation and Neighborhood Quality:
Blacks, Hispanics and Asians in the San Francisco Metropolitan Area." Social
Forces 69(1): 15-32.
Wade Clark Roof, Thomas L. van Valey and Daphne Spain, 1976. "Residential
Segregation in Southern Cities: 1970." Social Forces 55: 59-71.
James Borchert, 1980. Alley Life in Washington: Family, Community, Religion,
and Folklife in the City: 1850-1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.